Characteristics, nursing points and psychological care of elderly patients
Characteristics of elderly patients, nursing points and psychological care_Clinical Medicine_Medical_Professional Materials. The characteristics of elderly patients, the main points of care and psychological care are following the aging of the world's teeth, and elderly patients are also added inexhaustibly, because degenerative changes in the various organs, organizational psychological functions, morphology, and dissection of elderly patients have occurred, which is expressed as psychological adaptability Weakness, decline in aging, etc.
The characteristics of elderly patients, the main points of care and psychological care are following the aging of the world's teeth, and elderly patients are also added inexhaustibly, because degenerative changes in the various organs, organizational psychological functions, morphology, and dissection of elderly patients have occurred, which is expressed as psychological adaptability Weakness, decreased aging and other aging phenomena, so the geriatric disease is long and has a long course of disease, slow recovery, frequent recurrence, and poor curative effect. The incidence and hospitalization rate of elderly patients are higher than those of other spring and autumn groups. Nursing is especially important. The characteristics of elderly patients are targeted at this special group of elderly people. The first article on nursing elderly people in the American Nursing Magazine states: "You cannot look at young children with the eyes of adults. I ca n’t look at an elderly person with the eyes of Ding Zhuang. ”This sentence clearly reveals the characteristics of elderly patient care. 1. Psychological characteristics: First-time elderly people, because of physical exhaustion, widowed or retired, their livelihoods have changed significantly, it is difficult for them to adapt to this change of role, some sense of superiority, feeling, loss will occur. In addition, poverty, illness, and other problems often disturb the elderly, so that they are often accompanied by loneliness, boredom, toughness, and arrogance, but they would like to be humbled by the society, care about their health, and be suspicious. Dealing with people and things around you, emotional depression, etc. 2. Psychological characteristics: Compared with young people, due to degenerative changes in the net devices of the elderly, their mental functions are reduced, their compensatory ability is reduced, the body's tolerance is reduced, their tolerance is poor, and their abilities, vision, hearing, and memory are reduced Reflects dullness, mental retardation, and osteoporosis. 3. Poor sex: strong dependence, poor ability to take care of themselves, and reduced self-control ability. 4. Complicated condition: Elderly patients often coexist with multiple diseases (for example, suffering from cerebral hemorrhage accompanied by hypertension, diabetes, etc.), and the disease has a long cure period, poor prognosis, and the disease is easy to occur frequently. 5. Critical condition: Elderly patients have various types of psychological functions, sudden changes in their condition, coexistence of multiple diseases, and clinical symptoms are not typical. In addition, the elderly feel dull and are likely to present symptoms. Key points of nursing for elderly patients 1. Ineffective communication and comprehension of the characteristics of the elderly, caring for their physical and mental health, and taking care of the patients and their families to do communication work. Pay attention to the elderly when they are providing information. Specific and simple to complex, according to their habits, patiently and enthusiastically repeated, the wording speed should be slow, and the other party is clear and clear. 2. Full-feet sleep The elderly do not easily fall asleep and wake up easily. They should be connected to the ward to be quiet, turn off the lights early, reduce adverse stimuli, and create good sleep. You can also soak your feet with warm water before going to bed, teach them relaxation techniques, and instruct them to sleep. Drink less water before waiting to help you sleep. 3. Dietary guidelines to develop good habits, non-smoking alcohol, small meals, pay attention to the combination of meat and vegetables, reduce salt, sugar and cholesterol intake, eat more fruits and vegetables and digestible food. Because of the poor self-control ability of the elderly, patients who need to control their diet should hand over their family members to keep their food in good storage, so as to prevent the patients from taking their own food to affect the curative effect. 4. Connect the two stools to direct the patient to develop good defecation habits, and avoid defecation on time; constipation patients should be given a small dose of bowel moisturizer according to the doctor's advice, and need to help hand out when needed; elderly with acute urine retention For catheterization, the appropriate type of catheter should be selected to avoid leakage or prolapse. If the urinary catheter is not successfully inserted into the male elderly, it should be considered whether the prostate is enlarged or not inserted. After insertion, the urine should be released slowly. , The first urine output should not be 600ml, to prevent the elderly from collapse due to frailty or cause hematuria. 5. Strengthen basic care (1) The bed unit is clean, dry and free of debris; (2) Hemiplegia patients should strengthen the output point on the affected side, assist the passive movement of the limbs, give appropriate massage, and prevent venous thrombosis (3) Avoid using shearing force (pulling, pulling, pushing, etc.) when changing the patient's position; (4) Do skin care, especially the skin care of elderly patients who are unclear and obstruct the exchange. 6. Pay attention to safety (1) Fix the pager in a place where the patient can easily touch it and use it, and check whether the call system is normal, so as to avoid accidents during emergency use. (2) The bed of a hemiplegia patient is best to lean against the wall, with the affected limb facing inward. It is unlikely that a fall will occur; elderly people who do not know well should add a bed rail. (3) Explain to the patient and his or her family that the elderly should be slow when they are changing their positions and need to rest to prevent orthostatic hypotension from happening. (4) The general recovery of the elderly is delayed after surgery (because of the delayed metabolism, the metabolism is slowed down). Pay attention to the connection of the airways to avoid falling behind the tongue. . (5) Add as many visits to the ward as possible to observe changes in the condition. Be vigilant against the complaints of elderly patients, so as not to delay the illness. When most elderly patients are facing one or more chronic diseases, they look forward to more active, rich and colorful livelihoods, but chronic diseases have accelerated their physical and functional loss. Based on the peculiarities of senility and psychology, clinical nurses are being done. It is time to make intensive injections and treat elderly patients as partners of nursing workers. Give more love to care for the physical and mental health of elderly patients and try to fill their feet. The need to make it connect with indecent expressions, and help them establish a determination to defeat the disease. The main elderly patients of elderly pathological care are suffering from illness, afraid of getting the ability to live on, afraid of loneliness, and afraid of having no relatives in bed. For example, if a retired patient feels that he is not useful, but self-pity and abandonment, widowed or offspring feel lonely, There are often strong tempers, quirks, and some trivial matters such as spleen or depression and tears. In addition to physical organ diseases, they are often accompanied by psychological obstacles. Psychological factors, social factors, and mentality factors are closely related to the occurrence and rehabilitation of senile diseases. Because the education level, personal ethics, nature, economic premise, family, professional relationship and life history of elderly patients are different, the mentality of elderly patients is very different, and their attitudes towards disease are not different. Severe horror of the disease, reduced emotions, loneliness, irritability, anxiety, fear of horror, depression of medication, sadness of grief and depression, showing depression of uncommon treatment often causes disorders of internal excretion and metabolism, leading to increased disease Not easy to recover. Therefore, it is extremely important to do psychological care for elderly patients. Psychological care methods for elderly patients. Depression. The depressed person will have a feeling of sunset at dusk. This cowardly mentality is being negatively strengthened after the illness. A sad and disappointed mentality is felt, and I think it is useless. Others add commitment, so passive collective healing. It is mainly seen in patients who are arrogant and sexual and who are relatively sick. Nursing criterion: Adding patient-patient communication and establishing a coordinated patient-patient relationship are not only the basis for comprehensive and accurate collection of materials.At the same time, invalid communication is also one of the main ways to reduce and eliminate geriatric conditions and depression. Elderly patients because of work Reductions in social programs and lack of pours are likely to reduce emotions. The support of family members is very important. Reduction of loneliness and loneliness presents patients who are hospitalized for a long time and accompanied by poor relatives. This type of patient is introverted, and loneliness rarely speaks, and other patients are reluctant to associate with them. In addition, few people come, and the patient is very lonely. Expressed as doing nothing, feeling down, and often staying in bed. Nursing criterion: Establishing channels for patient exchanges of pride is the best way to eliminate loneliness. Although this kind of patients are silent in general, they have rich inner emotions. Patients should be automatically contacted during nursing, exchange ideas, and guide patients to join some practical programs. Anxiety This is the most common psychological problem of elderly hospitalized patients. Each patient is divided into different degrees, but the first week of hospitalization is the most significant. They are unsure about what disease they have, their severity, when they can be cured, and so on. Care Standards: Annotate, support, and relax. Give tangible comments to the questions raised by the patients, enable the patients to understand their illness, point out the cause of the anxiety and the influence of the anger, and conduct relaxation exercises. Patients can take the view that this mentality is eliminated or relieved in a short period of time, and sleep and diet will be significantly improved. The serious doubts of anxiety and horror are secondary to those who are exacerbated or who have cancer or whose conditions require surgery. They believe that the disease is blind, are approaching the line, or are scared by surgery. Nursing guidelines: Grooming and commenting, such as motivating patients to actively participate in and implement various types of treatment, nursing, and health care, introduce relevant knowledge about disease, and prevent health care methods, can reduce the horror. At the same time, the care of such patients should be more careful and diligent, and their words and deeds should be solemn, so that they can understand the knowledge of surgery and other enemies. Don't let patients feel the critical condition and get the determination to heal. Emotional invariance is more common in patients with irritable, irritable, picky, and other characteristics. • Aggressive or delayed activities may cause their emotional changes to come from financial commitment, illness, and loved ones. They are uncomfortable with their own illness and slightly unhappy work. To come out, the subject is often or a escort. Care Standards: Understand, be generous, and proceed. At the same time, help build an excellent social support system, such as motivating family members, relatives and friends often, and taking care of emotional support. Excessive dependence on elderly hospitalized patients exists in these two mentalities, but patients with strong dependence and long-lasting escort are the most prominent. They want others to help, even if they can do it, they don't want to do it, they become dependent and it is very harmless to rehabilitation. Nursing criterion: Explain the importance of proper programs to patients, encourage patients to do what they can, reduce unnecessary help, make daily program plans according to the illness, and improve patients' daily living ability.
Hot words: psychological care for elderly patients