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Important knowledge of pediatric nursing

Updated: 2015-03-12

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Neonatal birth injury
Refers to the injuries that newborns suffer during birth. Most birth injuries occur in the exposed area. Common neonatal injuries such as:
Scalp birth injury
Including neoplasia, scalp hematoma, and subfascial hemorrhage. Such as:
(1) Tumor: It usually occurs in the natural position of the head. The superficial hemorrhagic edema is caused by the scalp trauma, and its location is not limited to a skull suture. No clinical treatment is needed, and it usually disappears within 3 days. .
(2) Scalp hematoma: The cause is unknown. It usually occurs in infants with forceps. It can occur in any part of the skull, but it is limited to a single bone suture. A small number of cases will have calcification.
(3) Subfascial hemorrhage: It occurs because the fetal head is pressed and dragged by external force when it passes through the pelvic cavity. It may be combined with heavy bleeding and cause shock death. There is a sense of fluctuation when palpation, and a lot of complications such as blood loss and jaundice should be paid attention to clinically.
2. Head hematoma
The neonatal skull subperiosteal vessels rupture, and blood accumulates under the periosteum to form a hematoma. Mostly caused by vaginal surgery or long-term compression of the fetal head.
3. Newborn fractures
Fractures that occur during childbirth are mostly caused by improper midwifery practices. The common ones are:
(1) Clavicle fractures: Clavicle fractures are the most common type of postpartum injury fractures. It often occurs when the size of the shoulder of a huge fetus is too large and the shoulder is difficult to deliver. It can also occur during traction in the buttocks and occasionally seen during delivery. The injured shoulder motion is affected or completely immobile. During the physical examination, local swelling was seen, and there were bone friction sounds at the fracture. If necessary, an X-ray was taken to confirm the diagnosis. For treatment, a cotton pad can be placed under the armpit of the sick child, and the upper limb of the affected side can be fixed to the chest with a bandage. It can often heal after two weeks and the prognosis is good.
(2) Humeral fractures: Most humeral fractures are caused by hip surgery. Most of the fractures occurred in the middle of the backbone, which was a transverse fracture with displacement. A cotton pad can be placed under the armpit of the child to treat the elbow joint at a right angle, and the chest is tied with a bandage, and often heals after two weeks. Overlap and angulation of the fracture ends can disappear on their own in a short time.
(3) Femoral fracture: When the hip is pulled, the lower limb is hooked by hand, which is likely to cause a femoral fracture. After the fracture, the local swelling was severe and the bone was rubbing. At the same time, due to the contraction of the flexor muscle, the proximal stump was displaced forward, causing anterior angular deformity. Treatment can be fixed with small splints or drape traction, usually healed in two weeks, and usually does not leave deformities.

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